Steps To Fix Kernel Swap In Linux

In this blog post, we will discover some possible causes that can cause kernel swapping in Linux, and then I will share possible ways to try to fix this problem.

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    The kernel uses paging and paging to handle this memory management. Paging refers to the time it takes to write portions, called pages, of each process’s memory to disk. Simply put, swapping means writing the entire process, not just parts of it, back to disk.

    </p> <h2 id="10"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="Presentation"></span>Presentation<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>In the fifth part of the list of <code>Linux kernel boot processes</code>, we learned what the kernel does at the initial stage. In the third step, the kernel initializes individual things like <code>initrd</code> mounting, lockdep initialization, and many other things before we can see the kernel actually start the first initialization process. </p> <p>Yes, there will be a lot of different things, but rather a lot a lot and again a lot of work with memory.</p> <p></p> <div style="box-shadow: rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.3) 0px 1px 2px 0px, rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.15) 0px 1px 3px 1px;padding:20px 10px 20px 10px;"> <p><h2 id="2"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="What_is_the_use_of_paging_in_Linux"></span>What is the use of paging in Linux?<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>Linux uses demand paging directly to load executable images into a process’s virtual memory. Every time the command is executed,the file containing it can be considered open, and its contents are written to the process’s virtual memory.</p> </div> <p>In my opinion, storage management is one of the many complex parts of the Linux kernel that is widely used in systems programming. For this reason, before starting to initialize the kernel, we need to familiarize ourselves with paging.</p> <p><code>Paging</code> is a mechanism for converting a linear memory address And to a physical address. If you’ve read the previous parts of this book, your company may remember that we saw the actual segmentation method, where physical addresses were calculated by shifting the register of the partition by four and adding the best shift. We also saw segmentation in protected mode when we took a handle to a person and completely converted base addresses from offset descriptors to tables to compute some physical addresses. Now we understand paging in 64-bit mode.</p> <p></p> <div style="box-shadow: rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.3) 0px 1px 2px 0px, rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.15) 0px 1px 3px 1px;padding:20px 10px 20px 10px;"> <p><h2 id="4"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="What_is_demand_paging_in_Linux"></span>What is demand paging in Linux?<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>On-demand paging is a type of replacement performed on virtual storage systems. With demand paging, data is unlikely to be copied from disk to a specific RAM until it is needed, that is, it is not requested by the program. Data will not be copied if it already exists in memory.</p> </div> <p>As the Intel manual says:</p> <p><block quote></p> <p>Paging provides a mechanism, in the implementation of a traditional on-demand virtual memory program, whereby portions of the program’s deployment environment are mapped to a physical memory region as needed.</p> </blockquote> <p></p> <div style="box-shadow: rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.3) 0px 1px 2px 0px, rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.15) 0px 1px 3px 1px;padding:20px 10px 20px 10px;"> <p><h2 id="3"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="What_is_kernel_memory_in_Linux"></span>What is kernel memory in Linux?<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>You see, Linux kernels share 4 GB of address space between user policies and the kernel; In your most common configuration, the full 3 GB of 32-bit space is allocated to user memory, and the main kernel gets the last 1 GB, which accumulates at 0xc0000000.</p> </div> <p>So… In this article I will try to explain the reasons for pagination. Of course, it will probably be closely related to this <code>x86_64</code> version of the Linux kernel, but we won’t go into details anyway (at least not in this article).</p> <h2 id="11"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="Enable_Pagination"></span>Enable Pagination<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <div style="box-shadow: rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.3) 0px 1px 2px 0px, rgba(60, 64, 67, 0.15) 0px 1px 3px 1px;padding:20px 10px 20px 10px;"> <p><h2 id="1"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="What_is_a_kernel_paging_request"></span>What is a kernel paging request?<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>A paging request or page fault is your way of telling the CPU that not all certain pages are mapped to each of our virtual memory.</p> </div> <div style="background: rgba(156, 156, 156, 0.07);margin:20px 0 20px 0;padding:20px 10px 20px 10px;border: solid 1px rgba(0,0,0,0.03);text-align: left;"><h2><span class="ez-toc-section" id="Speed_up_your_computer_in_minutes-2"></span>Speed up your computer in minutes<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>Is your PC running slow? Are you experiencing regular crashes and freezes? Then it's time to download <a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ASR Pro</a>! This powerful software will repair common Windows errors, protect your files from loss or corruption, and optimize your system for maximum performance. With <a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ASR Pro</a>, you can fix any Windows issue with just a few clicks - no technical expertise required! So why wait? Download <a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ASR Pro</a> today and enjoy a smooth, stable PC experience.</p> <li>1. Download and install <a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">ASR Pro</a></li> <li>2. Launch the program and select the scan you want to run</li> <li>3. Click on the Restore button and wait for the process to finish</li> <br><a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow" alt="download"><img src="/wp-content/download22.png" style="width:340px;"></a></div> <p>There are three pagination mode:</p> <p><str></p> <li>32-bit pagination</li> <li>EAP messaging;</li> <li>IA-32e study.</li> </ul> <p><img onerror="this.src='https://downloadchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/1pixel.jpg'" src="https://static.thegeekstuff.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/linux-memory.png" style="margin-top:20px; margin-bottom:20px; display: block; margin: 0 auto;" alt="what is kernel paging in linux"></p> <p>Here we will interpret only the last mode. To control the paging mode of <code>IA-32e</code>, almost everyone needs to do the following:</p> <p><str></p> <li>set each of our bits <code>CR0.PG</code>;</li> <li>set bit <code>CR4.PAE</code>;</li> <p>Set </p> <li>bit <code>IA32_EFER.LME</code>.</li> </ul> <p>We have already seen where many of the bits were set in arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S:</p> <pre><code>movl $(X86_CR0_PG | X86_CR0_PE), %eaxmovl %eax, %cr0</code></pre> <p><img onerror="this.src='https://downloadchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/1pixel.jpg'" src="/posts/what-is-kernel-paging-in-linux.png" style="margin-top:20px; margin-bottom:20px; display: block; margin: 0 auto;" alt="what is kernel paging in linux"></p> <p>and</p> <pre><code>movl $MSR_EFER, %ecxRDMbcl $_EFER_LME, %eaxtimer</code></pre> <h2 id="12"><span class="ez-toc-section" id="Pagination_Structure"></span>Pagination Structure<span class="ez-toc-section-end"></span></h2> <p>Paging divides a linear address space into web pages of a fixed size. Pages can be mapped to a specific physical address space or additional memory. This fixed size is <code>4096</code> <code>x86_64</code> of the Linux kernel. Special structures are used to perform linguistic translation linearly from address to physical solution. Each rule consists of <code>4096</code> <code>512</code> entries (mainly for <code>PAE</code> <code>IA32_EFER and .LME modes</code>). Swap structures are hierarchical and Linux, like the kernel, uses 4 swap levels in the <code>x86_64</code> architecture. The processor uses the line guard portion to identify an entry in the multi-user paging structure that is at a lower level, a state of physical memory (<code>page frame</code>) or a physical address in my area ( <code>page offset</code> ). The address is a top-level swap structure strategically located in the <code>cr3</code> register. I had when I saw this in arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S:</p> <pre><code>actual table pgtable(%ebx), %eaxmovl %eax, %cr3</code></pre> <p>We create the web publishing table structures and put the top level structure in the <code>cr3</code> register. Here it is recommended to store <code>cr3</code> in some top-level structure, <code>PML4</code> or just <code>global catalog page</code> if it is in the Linux kernel. <code>cr3</code> is actually a 64-bit register and has the following structure:</p> <pre><code>63 42 tommers skrrrm 51 32 -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------| | || Reserved by MBZ | AddressStructures of the upper level of a person || | | -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------31 12 11</p> </p> <a href="https://link.advancedsystemrepairpro.com/976b5403?clickId=downloadchronicle.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> Download this software now to clean up your computer. </a> </p> <p><a href="" class="translate"></a></p> <div class="saboxplugin-wrap" itemtype="http://schema.org/Person" itemscope itemprop="author"><div class="saboxplugin-tab"><div class="saboxplugin-gravatar"><img src="https://downloadchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/dylanmorley.jpg" width="100" height="100" alt="Dylan Morley" itemprop="image"></div><div class="saboxplugin-authorname"><a href="https://downloadchronicle.com/author/dylanmorley/" class="vcard author" rel="author" itemprop="url"><span class="fn" itemprop="name">Dylan Morley</span></a></div><div class="saboxplugin-desc"><div itemprop="description"></div></div><div class="clearfix"></div></div></div><div class='yarpp yarpp-related yarpp-related-website yarpp-template-thumbnails'> <!-- YARPP Thumbnails --> <h3>Related posts:</h3> <div class="yarpp-thumbnails-horizontal"> <a class='yarpp-thumbnail' rel='norewrite' href='https://downloadchronicle.com/en/parted-magic-kernel-options/' title='Steps To Fix Split Magic Kernel Options'> <img width="150" height="150" src="https://downloadchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/parted-magic-kernel-options-150x150.jpg" class="attachment-thumbnail size-thumbnail wp-post-image" alt="" 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